duksctf

Bunch of sec. enthusiasts who sometimes play CTF

AlexCTF 2017 - Bring weakness

A sever shows us random looking numbers and we have to predict the output of the next number. The numbers were generated using a linear congruential generator. Using the Marsaglia method we were ale to fully recover the parameters of the PRNG and thus predict the number sequence.

Description

We got this PRNG as the most secure random number generator for cryptography.

Can you prove otherwise

nc 195.154.53.62 7412

Details

Points: 300

Category: crypto

Validations: 76

Solution

When we connected to the server we got the following interaction:

$ nc 195.154.53.62 7412
Guessed 0/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
2
2607191779
Guessed 0/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
2
975774374
Guessed 0/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number

So it seems that we have to guess the following value of a PRNG knowing the previous values but not the algorithm. After playing a bit with multiple connections to the server, I tried to see if the implementation was not a linear congruential generator. Meaning that the next value will be computed linearly from the previous value i.e . We have to find , , and . I first noticed that all the values were coded on 32 bits so . Then according to the Marsaglia method we can find by computing the least common divisor of the determinants of several given outputs. We can repeat the procedure until which gave . Computing is then easy because each consecutive outputs have a linear dependance thus . In our case it gave . Finally we have .

Then from a single value we are able to predict the next value with a simple computation. The complete computation are given in this script which allows to recover the flag:

$ python3 solution.py 
[2333394338, 3027468667, 937323110, 3491539096, 1367160218, 2111818057, 1743138065, 385408531, 3028765313, 3928804162, 1369218140, 1408119226]
m = 0xffffffff
a=2476367552
b=2326331526
Initial number: 3688430318
Next number (in decimal) is

Next number: 896975107
Guessed 1/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
Next number (in decimal) is

Next number: 842681045
Guessed 2/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
Next number (in decimal) is

Next number: 234035431
Guessed 3/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
Next number (in decimal) is

Next number: 3961618553
Guessed 4/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
Next number (in decimal) is

Next number: 1021667737
Guessed 5/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
Next number (in decimal) is

Next number: 4154774900
Guessed 6/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
Next number (in decimal) is

Next number: 1597680361
Guessed 7/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
Next number (in decimal) is

Next number: 1400691188
Guessed 8/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
Next number (in decimal) is

Next number: 1765742767
Guessed 9/10
1: Guess the next number
2: Give me the next number
Next number (in decimal) is

Next number: 939554780
flag is ALEXCTF{f0cfad89693ec6787a75fa4e53d8bdb5}

Written on February 4, 2017