# PlaidCTF 2017 - Multicast

*The same flag is encrypted 5 times with RSA small public exponent and linear padding. The generalization of Håstad’s broadcast attack and the Coppersmith method allow to recover the flag.*

### Description

Many messages intercepted.

Break them.

### Details

Points: 175

Category: Crypto

Validations: 74

### Solution

Two files were given, one with 20 large integers and one Sage script. The script file consists in encrypting the same flag 5 times with RSA and public exponent . Hopefully the padding values and are also given in the file as well as the modulus and the ciphertexts . We noticed that the generalization of the Håstad’s broadcast attack allows us to solve this challenge. With these values we can create the polynomials . Then we make each monic by dividing them with the coeficient of degree 5. We used the Chinise remainder theorem to find the values such that and for . With those value we could built the combined polynomial:

Now we have to solve the equation and a solution will be the flag. We used the Coppersmith method to solve the equation and the sage script given by David Wong. The complete Sage script to recover the flag that was:

```
from binascii import unhexlify
f = open("data.txt", "r")
a = []
b = []
c = []
n = []
for i in range(5):
a.append(int(f.readline().strip()))
b.append(int(f.readline().strip()))
c.append(int(f.readline().strip()))
n.append(int(f.readline().strip()))
f.close()
r = [PolynomialRing(Integers(n[i]),'x') for i in range(5)]
h = [r[i]([b[i], a[i]]) **5 - c[i] for i in range(5)]
# Make h monic:
for i in range(5):
h[i] = Integer(list(h[i])[5]).inverse_mod(n[i]) * h[i]
t = []
t.append(crt([1, 0, 0, 0, 0], n))
t.append(crt([0, 1, 0, 0, 0], n))
t.append(crt([0, 0, 1, 0, 0], n))
t.append(crt([0, 0, 0, 1, 0], n))
t.append(crt([0, 0, 0, 0, 1], n))
N = n[0]*n[1]*n[2]*n[3]*n[4]
R = PolynomialRing(Integers(N),'X')
H = sum([t[i]*R(list(h[i])) for i in range(5)])
dd = 5
beta = 1 # b = N
epsilon = beta / 7 # <= beta / 7
mm = ceil(beta**2 / (dd * epsilon)) # optimized value
tt = floor(dd * mm * ((1/beta) - 1)) # optimized value
XX = ceil(N**((beta**2/dd) - epsilon)) # optimized v
load("coppersmith.sage")
solution = coppersmith_howgrave_univariate(H, N, beta, mm, tt, XX)
print(unhexlify("{:x}".format(solution[0])))
```

Which reveals the flag:

```
potential roots: [(48256277589562736290346738984160936248669152041168006480231762961805279486041361025591223549819869423406508417405, 1)]
PCTF{L1ne4r_P4dd1ng_w0nt_s4ve_Y0u_fr0m_H4s7ad!}
```